菲律宾申慱皇冠体育

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        菲律宾申慱皇冠体育ByXiaBin,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo21,2012ThecomingfivetotenyearsarecriticalbothforChinaseconomicdevelopmentandforthegoverningoftheCommunistPartyofChina,giventheinadequatereformingeffortsandconsequentlytheincreasinglycompl,anditishel,Chinaisatacriticalmoment,"top-level"designatatimewhentheTwelfthFive-YearPlanhasjust,,wehadtomakeclearwhatitsgoal,,,confusionsanddoubts,tendencyofreformcannotbech,wearefacingsomenewissuesincludingmanyacutecontradictionswhichimpedesustainableeconomicdevelopment,socialstabilityandunderminethefoundationofthePartysruling,Therefore,thetop-leveldesignwetalkabouttodayisnotmereaboutthe,itisproblem-oriented,morespecifically,itisdevelopedtosolveinstitutionalproblemsunderlyingtheunsustainabledevelopmentofChinaseconomy,eliminaterisksforChinaseconomywhentheglobaldemandsweakenafterthecrisisoftheUnitedStatesandtheslowdownofChinaseconomicgrowth,andresolvesocialinstabilitycausedbysevererementionedproblemsandformulatemeasures,,ssocialandeconomicfields,includingscience,educationandhealth,therearemandastheonefortheTwelfthFive-YearPlanperiod,noroneliketheReportont,wewouldliketotoucheverysectorandeveryaspect;however,someofsuchquesnancin,thetop-leveldesigndealswithkeyproblemswhichmayaffectthewholesituation,aimstosolvecoreissuesandcontradictionswhichhaveexistedforlong,andtriestosolvemajorproblemswhichmayimpedethestablegrowthofChinaseco,thetop-leveldesigndoesnthavetobeall-inclusive,icharegenerallythetoughestissuesandhavearousedmostdiscontentandimpededorwillimpedethesocialstabilityandstableeconomicgrowth,anditshouldeffe,ideologicalstraitjacketneedstoberemoved,,,itshouldstartfromthesupremeinterestofthecountrysstability,aimatsocialstabilityandsustainableeconomicdevelopmentanddirectlyfacewhateverproblemswemeetinapracticalandrealisticway,,wearetoblameforleavingsomanyeconomicprobl,thepastdecadehasprovedthatasChinahasbecomethesecondlargesteconomyintheworldintheprocessofglobalization,massiveandknowdecisionsItis,,thereareopinionsoverseasthatChinaseconsGDPwillsurpassthatoftheUnitedStatesi,,thetop-leveldesignshallnotsimplyregardthepessimisticideasaboutChinaas"conspiracies",butregardthemaswarnings,findoutpossibilityofsystematicrisksafterChinaseconomicgrowthslowsdownandworkoutsolutions;ontheotherhand,weshouldnotblindlybelievethoseoptimisticideas,,ncingtheworldsinvestment,,solutionsandpoliciesfortheseproblemscannotbeworkedoutbydivorcingfromrealityorbyputtingasideothercountriesconcerns,interestsandpossiblecountermeasuresfollowingtheriseofChinaandthepossiblechangesintheworldenvironment. ,,noclearsolutionshavebeenworkedoutinalongperiodoftimefortheuseofagriculturallandfornon-agriculturalpurposesandtheresidentiallandproblem,,rightsandinterest,butalsoinfluencetheunifiedlandplanningintheconstructionofthousandsoftownsinChina,,fromtheperspectiveofeconomicdevelopment,increasingfarmersincomebytransferofland-userightsisimportantfor,solvingproblemslikeforceddismantlingandpeoplesappealingtohigherauthoritiesforhelp,rich-poorgapbetweenruralandurbanareasandcorruptioncandirectlyinfluencethestabilityofthegovernmentesstimeforthecentralgovernmenttomakeupitsmindtosolvethisproblem,asithasb …Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByLaiYouwei,GeneralOfficeofDRCResearchReportNo8,2009TheproductionservicesectorinBeijingstartedfromahigherpointandhasbecome,withagoodindustrialfoundation,aingitsproductionservicesector,addresstheconspicuouscontradictionsandproblemshamperingthedevelopmentoftheproductionservicesectorinBeijingandboosttherealizationofthesteadyandrapideconomicdevelopmentinBeijing,,theproductionservicesectorinBeijingmaintainedagoodmomentumofdevelopmentandplayedanimportantsupportiveroleinstabilizingtheeconomortheproductionservicesectorandtakethedevelopmentoftheproductionservicesectorasan:productionservicesectorInNovember2007,theBeijingMunicipalPartyCommitteeandtheBeijingMunicipalGovernmentjointlypromulgatedtheProvisionsonFurtherPromotingtheDevelopmentoftheServiceIndustry,forthefuturedevelopmentofBeijing,inordertocarryouttheProvisionsonFurtherPromotingtheDevelopmentoftheServiceIndustryandconscientiouslyaddresstheconspicuouscontradictionsandproblemshamperingthedevelopmentofBeijingsproductionservicesector,itissuggestedthatinlightofthepreferentialpoliciestowardnewandhi-techindustriesandthesoftwareindustry,specificpoliciesandmeasuresshouldbeformulatedtoboostthedevelopmentoftheproductionservicesectorintermsofmarketaccess,financialsupport,preferentialtaxation,guaranteeduseofland,pricesoftheessentialproductionfactors,fiscalsupport,exportrewardsandpersonneltrainingandintroduction,andthepoliciesandmeasuresshouldbegearedtothepromulgatedpoliciesandmeasurestoprovidestillgreaterbackingforthedevelopmentoftheproductionservicesectorandtoenhancethestayingpowromotionoftheserviceindustryInAugust2007,inordertofurtherfacilitatethedevelopmentofBeijingsbankingindustries,theBeijingMunicipalGovernmentsetuptheleadinggrouptobeinchargeofthefinancialservicework,whichplayedapositiveroleinfacilitatingthedevelopmentofBeijing,withreferencetotheorganizationalstructureofthe"LeadingGroupforFinancialServiceWorkinBeijing",shouldsetupleadinggroupsforexpandingtheserviceindustryinvariousdistrictsandcounties,tobeinchargeoftheoverallguidanceandcomprehensivecoordinationtowardtheexpansionoftheserviceindustryinvariousdistrictsandcounties,toearnestlyplacethedevelopmentoftheserviceindustryespeciallytheproductionservicesectorontheimportantagendcipalgovernmentlevelforthepromotionoftheserviceindustrytodiscoverandtackletheseriousproblemsthatcropupinthedevcordancewiththeorientationsandprioritytasksinthedevelopmentofBeijingsserviceindustryespeciallytheproductionservicesector,stepupcommunicationandcoordination,enhanceserviceawarenessandmakejointeffo"directivefundfortheserviceindustry"andthe"fundfortheproductionservicesector"(1)Tosetupthe"directivefundfortheserviceindustry"InordertoboostthedevelopmentofBeijingsserviceindustry,itissuggestedthatthe"directivefundforthedevelopmentofBeijingsserviceindustry",whicharemainlyusedattheweaklinksandinkeyfieldsandrisingtradesandprofessionsofthegrowingserviceindustry,,acertainamountofextrafundscanbearrangedfromthefinancialbudgetseachyeartobeusedassupportingdirectivefundsforthedevelopmentofthestateserviceindustryinvariouslocalities,fortheconstructionofthepublicplatforms,thegeneraltechnicalplatformsandtheinfrastructurefacilitiesinhigh-endpriorityindustrialdevelopmentzonesandinzoneswithserviceindustryclusters,fortheencouragementofindependentinnovationandbrandcreationandfortheopeningupofoverseasmarkets.(2)Tosetupthe"developmentfundfortheproductionservicesector"In1999,theformerMinistryofInformationIndustryandtheMinistryofFinancejointlystartedtheElectronicDevelopsastheintellectualpropertyrightsandstartedthe"StarlightChinaWickProject".TheformerMinistryofIn,forVimicroandbecamethemotivepowerforthedevelopmentofthe"StarlightChinaWickProject",butalsogaverisetomoreinvestmentsforbusinessstartupsandcreatesproductionservicesector,BeijingMunicipalGovernmentcansetupthe"developmentfundfortheproductionservicesector"withreferencetotheoperatingmodelof"electronicdevelopmentfund"andintensifythefinancia,suchasupportisdifferentfromthe"directivefundfortheserviceindustry",whichischaracterizedbythenewpracticeofriskinvestmentandmarketizedoperationbythegovernmentthatnotonlysupportstheproductionserviceenterprisestomakebreakthroughsinsomekeyfieldsandatsomecruciallinksandtogrowsteadily,butalsogainsrewardsfromthegovernmentinvestmentsoastorealizethemaintenanceofthevalueandtheappreciationoftheproductionservicedevelopmentfund.

        ByShenHengchao,ResearchTeamon"StrategicMajorResearchonBuildingHefeiintoanInnovativeTrialCity",DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearch(DRC)ResearchReportNo69,2011Technology-basedsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesarethemostactiveysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,suchasriskinvestment,privatesharesandcorporatebonds,zedenterprises(hereinafterreferredtoassmallandmedium-sizedenterprises).Inrecentyears,localgovernmentshavemadepositiveexplorationultforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestogainaccesstofinancinganditismoredifficultfortheseenterprises,whichhavejustbeenestablishedandareseekingtheirowngrowth,,theseenterprisesusuallygainfinancingbyissuingcorporatebonds,,apartformtheaforesaidwaysforraisingfunds,theycanalsogetfinancedwithloansfromcommercialbanks,,channelsforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoraisefundsinChinaarefewandfarbetween:OTCtradingmarketthatissuitedforprivatesharesandcorporatebondshasnotyetgrownup;thesizeoftheriskinvestmentissmallandsuchinvestmentisboundupinenterprisesonlargeinvestmentscale;privatesectorborrowinghasbeenlongconductedunderground;commercialbanksarequiteprudentwithsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesshortofcollaterals;thethresholdishighforissuingcorporatebonds,publiclistingandissuingcorporatebondsopenly;:Firstistocollectthefundsonthestockmarket;thesecondistostrivetoacquireriskinvestment.(1)Themulti-leveledstockmarketsuitedforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestoobtainfinancehasnotyetgrownupIndevelopedcountries,thenationalpubliclistingmarketsatthehighestlevelandthereiveuptotherequirementsforpubliclisting,,naSecuritiesRegulatoryCommissionandthesharesshouldbetradedinShenzhenandShanghai;sharesofnon-listingpubliccompanies,ifwithdrawnfromthemarket,shouldbetradedundertheagencysharetransfersystem(OldSanBan)atnon-listingcompaniesandthenewlyissuedsharesshouldbetradedontheOTCtradingmarketinTianjin,withthelatterbeingunderconstruction;sharesissuedbynon-publiccompaniesthroughprivatecollectionarecurrentlybeingtradedundertheagencysharetransfersystem(NewSanBan)inZhongguancunandatTianjinEquityExchangeandChinaHi-techPropertyExchange(CHTPE),vateshares,yetprivateshareshavenotbecomeaneffectivemeansoffinancingduetotheimpededtradingchannels.(2)Thesizeofriskinvestmentissmallandsuchinvestmentisboundupingrown-upenterprisesAsanimportantchanneloffinancingforindependentinnovation,,duetotheimpedimentofthewithdrawalchannels,theheavyburdenoftaxationandtheimperfectionofthesystemsrelatingtoprivatelyofferedfunds,thesizeoftheriskinvestmenttendstobesmallandisboundupingrown-upenterprises,makingitdifficulttomeetthedemandofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,thatin2009556briskrisk:Thefirstistogetfinanceddirectlyonthebondmarket;thesecondistogetloansthroughfinancialintermediaries.(1)Issueofenterprisebondsandpublicissueofcorporatebondshavelittletodowithsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesIndevelopedcountries,aregistrationsystemiscarriedoutfortrprises,,therehavebeenenterprisebondsiseBondspromulgatedin1993,beingexaminedandapprovedbyNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission,andwithenforcementthroughmandatoryadministrativeorder,yuanandthatofthelimitedliabilitycompaniesshallequalnolessthan60millionyuan,,theOT,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesareunabletodothefinancingbyprivatelyofferingcorporatebonds.澳门英皇体育网址ChenDaofuPrivateequityinvestment,whichiscalledPE(PrivateEquity)forshort,referstoakindofinvestmentintonon-listedequityornon-publiclytradedequity(privateequity)feringtoraisefundsfromnon-specifiedpublic,ortakeprivateplacement(non-publicoffering)toraisefundsfromspecificgroup,especial,,inviewofliquidity,transparencyandraisingfunds,,privateequityinvestmentfundsgenerall,privateequityinvestmentfundsincludeventurecapitalinvestment,mergersacquisitions,growthfunds,realestate,,withtheeverboominginternationalPEmarketandhugereturnsfromindividualinvestmentaswellastheappreciationofChinasstockmarketandrealestatevalue,thedemandforcorporaterestructuringand,sPEmarketIn2001and2002,thenumberoflocalventurecapital(VC)institutionsinChinareachedabout300,,thenumberofforeign-investedventurecapitalinstitutionswasabout50annually,,thereisahugegapbetweentheamount,the130localventurecapitalinstitutionsonlyheldaboutUS$470million,butthe45foreign-investedventurecapitalinstitutionsheldUS$,China,localventurecapitalinstitutionsinvestedin168companiesandinvestedUS$190million,butforeign-investedonesinvestedin51companieswithaninvestmentofUS$,localventurecapitalinvestedin83companies,whileforeign-investedonesinvestedin126companies,sarenotobviousandstillremainatthelevelofUS$160million,however,foreign-investedventurecapitalinvestmenthadalreadyreachedUS$730million,nearlyfivetimesthatofthelocalone,theabsolutesuperio,atotalof40privateequityfundswereestablishedinChinesemainlandandUS$,another17PEtobeinvestedinChinamainlandcompletedfund-raisingofUS$;inthesecondquarter,therewere15PEthatcouldmakeinvestmentinmainlandChinaandcompletedfund-raisingwithatotalofUS$alapproachofChina,therehavebeen16IPOwithdrawalcasesamong17PEones,%.Inthefirstquarterof2007,,therewere19withdrawaltransactions,,enterpriseswithdrawingthroughIPOaccountedfor80%,79%,72%,68%and64%,scurrentPEfocusedmoreonthepreliminarylistingstage,,enterprises,suchasMengniu,LiNing,eBay,Dangdang,SINA,Shengda,AsiaInfo,STPandBelle,chooseoverseasmarket(includingHongKong),bytheendof2006,thenumberofChineseenterpriseslistedoverseashadreachedmorethan400,ofwhichenterpriseslistedbyred-chipmodetakeupover80%.Amongthem,in2005,atotalof81companiesgotlistedoverseas,raisingUS$,atotalof86companiesgotlistedoverseas,raisingUS$,drivenbygoodperformanceofinternationalanddomesticPE,capitaltrustscheme,andtheywillcompetemorepositivelyinPEmarketespeciallyduetothefactthattherecent200contractswererevisedtobequalifiedinstitutionalinvestorswithoutlimitationonnumberandlessthan50qualifiednaturalpersons,meanwhile,,secu,expect“ViewsoftheStateCouncilontheReformandDevelopmentofInsuranceIndustry”,insurancecompaniesgotqualifiedfor“carryingoutpilotprojectsconcerninginsurancefundsinvestmentinpropertyassetsandventurecapitalenterprises”.AlthoughtheInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionisstillrelativelycautiousonthisissue,,suchasSino-SwissPartnershipFund,ASEAN-ChinaInvestmentFundandSino-BelgianEquityDirectInvestmentFund,BohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFund,,variousfinancialinstitutionsinChina,beingaseitheradministratorsorfundholders,ullplayInJanuary2007,approvedbytheStateCouncil,BohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFundandBohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFundManagementCo.,an,,theinitiativeofgovernmentsofvariousregionsarefullymobilized,,fourindustryfundsincludingGuangdongNuclearPowerFund,ShanxiEnergyFund,ShanghaiFinancialFundandSichuanMianyangHi-techFund,becamethesecondpiloti,thereemergedmorePEinvestmentinChinastraditionalsectors,thus,bstaclesforPEdevelopmentTheamendedPartnershipBusinessLawwhichwas,theyincluderegulationsoflimitedpartnershipandlimitedliabilitypartnership;secondly,theyallowlegalpersonsorotherorganizationstobepartners;thirdly,theymakeclearthecollectionrulesforpartnershipincometax,whic,Chinasfirstventurecapitalenterpriseorganizedintheformoflimitedpartnership,SouthSeaGrowthVentureCapitalLimitedPartnershipEnterprise,"TheDevelopmentPlanforInnovativeEnterprises”%....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

        ByZhangQiXuHongqiang,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo195,othesimplificationandharmonizationofinternational,enhancetradeefficiencyandproduceimmenseeconomicefficiency,tradefacilitationhasalwaysbeenanimportanttooladoptedactivelyby(WTO)hasnospecialagreementontradefacilitation,,tradefacilitationhasbeenincorporatedintothenegotiationsoftheDohaDe:cilitation;mentingbroaderplansfortradefacilitation-relatedtechnicalassistanceandabilitybuilding;,tradeandinvestmentfacilitationhasb,thetradetransactioncostbetweenallmemberswouldbecutby5%duringthe2002~2006periodandtradefacilitationwillaffectfourmajorareas:customsprocedures,standardsandunification,,theleadersofvariouscountriesjointlyputforwardtheActionPlanII,underwhichtheintra-regionaltradetransactioncostwouldbecutbyanother5%,theyexpressedinterestinwidertradefacilitationssuchastheimprovementofdomesticrulesandsystems,riouscountries,,theyincludethetradeingoods,thetradeinservices,tationinthefreetradearrangementsignedrespectivelybyChina,,JapanandSouthKoreaSofar,asHongKongandMacao,ChinahassignedfreetradeagreementswithASEAN,Chile,Pakistan,NewZealand,,,ChinahasjustconcludedinvestmentnegotiationswithASEANandsignedaninvestmentagreementinAugustthisyear,sFTAtradeingoodsincludedtheprovisionson"investment",andanadditionalprotocolwassignedinOctober2008,whichwoulddefinetherulesontheestablishmentoftheChina-PakistanInvestmentAreatopromoteinvestmentcooperation(withintheChina-PakistanFreeTradeArea,thisadditionalprotocolwouldgivepriorityconsiderationtotariffconcessionstothegoodsproducedintheHaier-RubaEconomicZoneandotherChina-Pakistaninvestmentareasandthegoodsthetwosideshaveinteresttoexport).China-NewZealandFreeTradeAgreementwasthefirstcomprehensivefreetradeagreementChinahassignedtocovertheareasoftradeingoods,,China,SingaporeandPeruhaveadoptedthFigure1:Thenumberoflivepigsonhandandforsaleduring1983~2006Note:Theabnormalchangeofnumbe,duringwhichtherestorationoflivepigmarketwasduetotherapidgrowthofnati,thehighreturnsofraisinglivepigscausedthenumberoflivepigsonhandtoexceedthenormalneedwithsupplyexceedingdemand,andcoupledwithAsianfinancialcrisis,,thesupplyanddemandinlivepigmarketkeptstable,basicallyremainingaroundbreakevenpointwithsmallfluctuation,,thisperiodsawastabletendency–eitherbyasmallprofitmarginoranarrowlossmargin,andthenumberoflivepigsonhandmaintainedareasonablelevel,sthalfof2003whichhadledtotheobstructionofth,thenumberoflivepigsonhanddroppedsharply,,theimpactcausedbythe"birdflue"resultedinaseriousshortageofpigsupply,,thepricesoflivepigsrosesharplyacrossthecountry,includinglivepigs,,thesupplyoflivepigschangedfromadequacytosurplusandpigpricesbeganfallingfromOctosSichuanprovinceinthewesternregionisthelargestprovinceintermsoflive,the,droppingby44%,morethan50%,atthattime,toraiseapigto100kgsneededmorethanRMB680yuan,includingthecostoffeedRMB546yuan,plusRMB140yuanforthecostofhogbreeding,epidemicprevention,waterandelectricitycharges,,tcalculatetheirlaborcostandself-suppliedfeed,toraiseapigto90kgsstillneededmorethanRMBnmoneyandevenlosealot,someraisersdidntbreedorabandontheirpiglets;someothersdidnantopickupandafterafewmonthsth菲律宾申慱皇冠体育

        菲律宾申慱皇冠体育ByBaShusong,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo47,2012ThecreditgrowthrateofChinascommercialbankingsystemhasbeenlowerthanexpectedsincethebeginningof2012,,onecriticalreasonforthis,apartfromtherestrictedcapacityofsomecommercialbanksingrantingloansduetoconstraintsofregulatoryindicatorslikethedeposit-loanratio,liesinthefactthatthenewcreditdemandsoftheinvestmentandfinancingplatformsoflocalgovernmentswithstrongcreditdemand,andtherealestateandtheinfra,small,againstthebackdropofdeceleratingeconomicgrowth,decreasingprofitsofmicroandsmallenterprises(MSEs)andincreasingdifficultyinoperatingMSEs,commercialbanksgenerallyareextremelycautiousaboutrenderingservicestoMSEs,whichisresponsibleforthegrowineenfinancialservicesprovidedbyChinascurrentfinancialsystemandtheactualfinancialneedsofMSEs,,themarket-orientedrestructuringoflargefinancialinstitutionsrepresentedbyjoint-stockreformandpubliclistingofstate-ownedbankshasmadeconsiderableprogressandfinomicallydevelopedareasintherestructuringprocess,financialse,howshouldChinasfinancialreformbepushedforwardInlightoftheachievementsinfinancialreformandthepracticalneedsofrealeconomyforthefinancialindustry,financialservicesforsmallandmicroenterprisesarerelativelybackward,theeffortsinboostingmarket-orientedinterestratesneedtobeintensified,andthesupplyoffinancialservicesisstillinsufnomy,theimprovementofsmallandmicrofinancialservicesisrelatedtoabove-mentionedsubstantiveneedsforfinancialservicestovariousde,well-developedsmallandmicrofinancecanprovidesupportforthefarmersindevelopmentofagricultureandruralareas,improveruralfinancialservices,helpredressfundingshortageofruralfinancialmarkets,fostercompetitioninruralfinancialmarketsandopenupnewchannelstomeetthefundingneedsoffarmersandruralMSEs,,thesmallandmicrofinancecanfacilitatetherationalandefficientuseofprivatecapital,guideandpromotethestandardizeddevelopmentofprivatefinancing,a,CultivateDiversifiedFinancingChannelsandUrgeSmallandMicroFinancialInstitutionstoProperlyPositionThemselvesSoAstoMatchupTheirFinancialServiceswiththeActualNeedsofSmallandMicroEnterprisesAccordingtostatistics,Chinahasover10millionsmallandmediumenterprises(SMEs)withlegalpersonality,accountingfor99%ofalltheenterprisesnationwide,contributingto60%ofChinasGDP,50%oftaxrevenuesand80%nsreleasedbythecentralbankshowsthatasoftheendofDecember2011,thebalanceofsmallbusinessloans(includingbillsdiscounted),%,90%ofbelow-scaleenterpriseshadnodebtor-creditorrelationshipwithfinancialinstitutions,neitherdid95%,inviewofthesizablesocialvaluecreatedbysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,,financialinstitutionsareinclinedtograntcreditandotherscarcefinancialresourcestolargeenterprises,amovethatinactualitys,rationalbusinesspositioningandviablebusinessmodefordifferentfinanci,smallandmicrofinancialinstitutionssuchasruralbanksandsmallloancompaniesshouldbevigorouslyencouraged;ontheotherhand,largecommercialbanksshouldbeurgedtoprovideservicesforMSEsandadjusttheirclientstructurebyMicroFinancialInstitutionsIncludingSmallLoanCompaniesThepresentstrictaccesscontrolinthefinanc,,,intermsoftheoveralldistributionoffinancialinstitutions,insmallandmedium-sizedtownswithahighconcentrationofMSEs,thereareonlyalimitednumberof,strictaccesscontrolinthefinancialindustryservingMSEsnotonlyleadstoinsufficientcompetitioninthefinancialservicemarket,directlyincreasingthefinancingcostofMSEs,butalsobringsaboutsignificantlicensepremium,makingfinancialinstitutionsbecomeinclinedtorelyonpremiumsbroughtaboutbylicensingcontrol,,appropriatederegulationisnecessarytopromotesmallandmicrofinancialinstitutionslikesmallloancompaniestoprovidefinancialservicesforMSEs,andnewsmallloancompaniesshouldbeintroducedtoassModelforSmallandMicroFinancialInstitutionsSoAstoBolsterTheirDevelopmentThesustainabledevelopmentofsmallandmicrofinancialinstitutionsmeansthatsuchinstitutionscangenerateadequateincomefromfinancialservicestocovertheiroperatingcostsandcapitalcostsandultimatelysurviveandthrive,,themarket-orientedinterestrateregimeisconducivetothesust,onereasonforthepoorperformanceofChinasmicrofinanceearlieronisthatlowinterestratesweremistakenlybelievedtobeameasurefor"povertyalleviation".Suchpolicyorientationononehanddisinclinescommercializedfinancialinstitutionstoundertakesmallcreditbusiness,ormakessmallloaninstitutionsengagedinmicrofinancerelyonspecialfundingsupportandtherebyfailtorealizefinancialindependence;ontheotherhand,italsoleadstorent-seekingwhere,inordertopromotesoundandsustainabledevelopmentofsmallandmicrofinancialinstitutions,itisimperativetoallowthemtomakenecessaryprofitsthroughnormaloperationsandinparticular,topro,smallandmicrofinancialinstitutionsshouldfocusonthecustomerorientationofMSEs,providefinancialservicesthatbestmeettheneedsofMSEs,givefullplaytotheiradvantageslikedistinctregionalcharacteristics,lowinformationcosts,rapidbusinessapprovalandlowtransactioncosts,concentrateondevelopingpromisingMSEclients,strengtheninnovationonriskmanagement,adjustbusinessstructure,enhancebusinesscompetitivenessandtverallfinancialstructure.Third,theChineseeconomybeganagradualintegrationwiththeworldeconomyafterChineseChairmanMaoZedongandAmericanPresidentRichardNixonshookpoliti,theformerEastEuropeanandSovietcountriesandsomecountriesinLatinAmerica,thewaveofeconomicinteg,andmadeitpossibleforglobaleconomicdevelopmenttofullyenjoythe"dividendofglobalization"andthe"dividendofpopulation".Asaresult,,thefloatingexchangeratesystemandtheopportunityarisingfromtheeconomicgrowthcycleinthenewroundofglobalization,donceagainfloodedtheworldwi,,rosefromUS$$,$100trillionin2002toUS$516trillionin2007,agrowthofmorethanfivefolds.

        ,heEssenceoftheProblemstoBeAddressedduringtheEleventhFive-YearPlanPeriodThefirsttwoyearsintheEleventhFive-Year%in2006andbyabout3%,thereisastillmuchworktobedonebeforerealizingthegoaloftheEleventsthereasonbehindsuchahugehabitualincreaseinenergyconsumptionperunitGDPWhatnewcircumstancesandproblemsarethererelatedto,,%%peryearinEleventhFive-YearPlanperiodseemsjustslightlyhigherthantheannuallyaveragedecreaseinthepastthreeFive-YearPlanperiods,butactuallyweareconfrontedwithmuchbiggerdifficultiesatpresent,andthenewcir,structuralelementsincludenotonlyindustrialstructures,butalsothe,60%to70%,thingschangedsince2002:structuralelementsturnedtobethedrivingforceforincreasingenergyconsumptionperunitofGDP,ratherthanforenergysaving,,thepositivecontributionoftechnologicalprogresshasbeengreatlyoffsetbythenegativeinfluencefromstructuralelements,,itisimperativetobuildupanewinnermechanismofenergysaving,,incorporatingbothstructuralandtechnicalelements,andincludingbothproductionlinks(energy-intensiveindustriesinparticular),therearesystematicdefectsinenergy-savingadministration,policies,,distinctdefectsexistinthescope,approachanddegreeofgovernmentsinterventioninenergysaving,particularlyrepresentedbyinsufficiencyofpolicyincentives,suchasinadequateincentivemeasuresforenergysavingrelatedtotaxationandpricing,absenceorinapplicabilityoflaws,rulesandstandardsinnewcircumstances,disorderinenergyadministrationsystemlikeenergy-savingmechanism,notableweakeninginenergyadministrationcapabilities,andtheimma,thestructuralelementscausedcontinuousdropofener,theharmbecomesmoreandmorevisibl,tstagefeaturingtheaccelerateddevelopmentofheavyandchemicalindustry,,thepresenteconomicgrowthrategreatlyexceedstheexpectedrateonwhichenergy-savinggoalwasset,,theaveragerateofeco%,andbasedonthatrate,theamountofenergytobesaved(absolutevalue)%.%%,theenergy-savinggoalswillberespectively670millionand700milliontonsofstandardcoalequivalent(mtsce).Therefore,asthepresentgrowthrateismuchhigherthanexpected,enthFive-stmentandtransformationofeconomicgrowthmode,andcurrentenergy-intensiveindustriesshouldbereplacedby,highgrowthrateandlowenergyconsumptioncanhardlybeachievedsimultaneouslya,neithercannewindustriesdrivingeconomicgrowthemergeinashorttime,norcangrowthmodebetransformedovernight,btainedatthesametime,itisnecessarytomakeclearthattoenhances,eenergysavingworkwasconfrontedwithproblemsof"threemoreandthreeless",namely,thecentralgovernmentpaidmoreattentiontothisissuewhereaslocalgovernmentpaidlessattention;moreattentionwasgivenduringenergyshortageorcrisisperiodswhereaslessattentionwasgivenwhenenergywascomparativelysufficient;moreattentionwaspaidinareaswithhighenergyrestric,theenergysavingworkisalsofacedwithproblemsof"threemoreandthreeless",referringtomoremobilizationmeasuresmadebythegovernmentwhereaslessactionstakenbyenterprisesandconsumers;morerequirementsmadewhereaslessconcretemeasures;moreadm,we,legalandadministrativemeasuresaredifferentbynature,ctstheyworkon(Table1):Table1EffectivenessofDifferentMeasuresonDifferentSubjectsByWuZhenjun,DRCTaskForceonPoliciesofIssuesofAgricultureResearchReportNo32,oductsBygivingplaytothecharacteristicsoftheresourcesandadvantagesoftheproductivebasesofitsdifferentregions,theprovinceofYunnanhasgivenscashcropsreached42millionmuin2010(15mumakeonehectare)andanoverallarrangementofrawmaterialbasesofcompetitiveagriculturalprod,theprovincehascementedandenhanceditscompetitiveindustrieswithtraditionalcharacteristics,suchastobacco,,,000tons,rank,~~20milliontons,withboththecultivatedareaandtheoutputmakingup16%orsoofthenationaltotal,,,%ofthenationaltotal,rankingtopinthecountry,andtheteaoutputhadreached207,000tons,%ofthenationaltotal,,theprovincehasacceleratedthed,thecultivatedareaofflowersinYunnanreached581,000mu,rankingfirstinthecountry,andtheoutputoffreshcutflowersrankedtopinthecountry,,thecultivatedareaofcoffeeinYunnanreached646,000mu,withaproductionof49,000tons,makingupmorethan99%and98%recentyears,thenumberofleadingenterprisesofagricultureindustrializationhasincnhavebeenbroughtupandtheg,thenumberofleadingenterprisesofagricultureindustrializationreached2012inYunnanandthenumberofvariouskindsoffarmproduceprocessingenterprisesabovethedesignatedsizereached1,omeinvolvedindistinctiveandcompetitiveindustries,fosteringenterpriseclusterswithdistinguishingfeatures,theto,344foreignenterprisesandover400enterprisesfromotherprovinceshavecometoYunnanforcultivation,breedingandprocessingofagriculturalproducts,whichwillfurtherpromotetheoveralllevelofthelorganizationlevelThenumberoffarmersprofessionalco-operativeorganizationshasincreasedrapidlyinYunnaninrecentyears,,thenumberoffarmersprofessionalco-operativeorganizationswidelyscatteredinvariousagriculturalindustries,suchastobacco,sugarandcoffee,hadincreasedto10,,,thenumberoffarmersprofessionalcooperativesregisteredatindustrialandcommercialauthoritieshadincreasedto7,lightoftheguidingprincipleof"VigorousGovernmentMotivation,CorrectMarketGuidance,ImpetusbyLeadingEnterprisesandActiveParticipationbyFarmers",theprovinceofYunnanhasdevotedmajoreffortstostartingtheconstructionofagriculturalstandardizationsyste,Yunnanhadformulatedandpromulgatedatotalof1,152localagriculturalstandardsandcriteria,,Yunnanhasconstructedatotalof134standardizationdemonstrationprojects,chcompetitiveanddistinctiveagriculturalindustriesascoffee,silkworm,flowers,youngforestplantsandspiceoil,,Yunnandevelopedatotalof4,658tobaccocooperativesand240,000productionhouseholds,,%oftheprovincialtotal,andrealized100%,suchprefecturesandmunicipalitiesasLincang,Dehong,PuerXishuangbannaandWenshanofYunnanhavevigorouslydevelopedsugarcanecultivationvillagesandteams,,,with57cultivationvillagesand154teamsbuilt,ofwhich,,coveringanareaof434,000mu,%.sputfortheffortstoadvancetheconstructionofthefarmproducecirculationmarket,improvedthemarketservicefunctions,initiallysetupthemodernfarmproducecirculationplatform,enhancedtheefficiencyoffarmproducecirculationandresolved,toacertainextent,thedifficultyfacingfarmers,cooperativesandagriculturalenterprisesinmarket"buyingandselling".Firstly,,Yunnanhassetupanaccumulativetotalof15,,Yunnanhadsetup213,000ruralcommercialnetworksunderthecountyleveland2,600farmersmarketshavebeenlistedasthestate-level"Double-HundredMarketProjects"(therenovationof100large-scaleagriculturalproductswholesalemarketsandthecultivationof100agriculturalenterprisesforcirculation-notesaddedbythetranslator).Yunnanhasinitiallyformedthemarketsystemwithwholesalemarketsplayingtheleadingrole,regionalmarketsasthemainstay,urbanandruraltrademarketsasthebasisandlarge-,,rmproducecold-chainsystem,theretraceablequalitysafetysystem,logisticsanddistributioncenters,inspectionandtestingcenters,safetymonitoringcenters,sewageandwastetreatmentcenters,,Yunnanha,thecommercialdepartmentsofYunnanhaveactivelyorganizedandstartedtheconnectionofagriculturalproductswithsupermarkets,enablingmorefarmproducecirculationenterprises,farmersco-operativeorganizationsandsupermarketstoparticipateintheaforesaidconnection,soastoimprovetheefficiencyinfarmproducecirculation.菲律宾申慱皇冠体育

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